Province No. 1 has 14 districts spread across mountains, hills, and lowlands, including Jhapa, Ilam, Panchthar, Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Terhathum, Bhojpur, Dhankuta, Khotang, Sunsari, Morang, Solukhumbu, Okhaldhunga, and Udaipur. Biratnagar is the provincial capital as well as the province’s largest city. It is bordered on the east by West Bengal and on the south by Bihar. Likewise, China’s autonomous region of Tibet to the north and Provinces No. 2 and 3 to the west. It’s between 86 degrees 1 minute and 88 degrees 3 minutes east longitude and 28 degrees 2 minutes and 26 degrees 3 minutes north longitude. This state has a total area of 25,905 square kilometres and a population of 4,534,943.
In terms of climate, summers in the north are cool and winters are harsh, whereas summers in the south are tropical and winters are mild.